Osteoporosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that affects a large percentage of the population, particularly women over the age of 50. It is characterized by the loss of bone density, making the bones weak and brittle and increasing the risk of fractures.


Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become fragile and more prone to fractures. It is the most common type of bone disease, but it often goes unnoticed until a fracture occurs. The disease is due to a loss of bone mass and density that weakens bones. Osteoporosis primarily affects older individuals, particularly women after they go through menopause. It can also occur in men.

Causes of Osteoporosis

Several factors influence osteoporosis development, including age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle choices. Bone density naturally reduces as we age, and certain conditions and habits can speed up this process:

  • Age – As we get older, our bodies produce less new bone tissue, and the breakdown of old bone occurs at a faster rate. This imbalance leads to a gradual loss of bone density, making bones weaker and more susceptible to fractures.
  • Gender – Women have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis compared to men. This is primarily due to the hormonal changes that occur during menopause, leading to accelerated bone loss.
  • Genetics – If a close relative, like a parent or sibling, has osteoporosis, your risk is higher.
  • Lifestyle Factors – Certain lifestyle choices can increase the risk of osteoporosis. These include:
    • Lack of physical activity – A sedentary lifestyle can decrease bone density.
    • Poor nutrition – Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, essential nutrients for bone health, can weaken bones. Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption and smoking can negatively affect bone health.
    • Use of certain medications – Long-term use of corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can weaken bones and increase the risk of osteoporosis.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is often referred to as a “silent disease” because it does not typically show noticeable symptoms in the early stages. As the condition progresses, several signs may show the presence of osteoporosis, including:

  • Fractures – Fractures occur most often in the hip, wrist, or spine. They often happen with minimal trauma, such as a minor fall. Weakened bones are more susceptible to these fractures.
  • Loss of Height – Osteoporosis can cause a gradual loss of height over time. This is due to the compression fractures in the vertebrae, leading to a stooped posture and a decrease in overall height.
  • Changes in Posture – As the vertebrae weaken, individuals with osteoporosis may develop a forward curvature of the spine, known as kyphosis or a “dowager’s hump.”
  • Back Pain – Osteoporosis-related fractures in the spine can cause chronic back pain. The pain is often localized in the lower back and may be aggravated by physical activity or prolonged periods of sitting or standing.

Diagnosis of Osteoporosis

Early diagnosis of osteoporosis is crucial. It helps prevent fractures and manage the condition effectively. Dr. Howard uses various diagnostic methods to assess bone density and the presence of osteoporosis. Here are some commonly used diagnostic tools:

  • Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) Scan.
  • Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA).
  • Blood and Urine Tests.

Treatment Options for Osteoporosis

The primary goals of osteoporosis treatment are to prevent fractures, slow down bone loss, and promote bone density. Dr. Howard tailors treatment plans to individual needs and may include a combination of lifestyle modifications, medications, and fall prevention strategies. Here are some common treatment options for osteoporosis:

Lifestyle Modifications

  • Regular Exercise: Weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging, and strength training, help strengthen bones and improve balance and coordination.
  • Balanced Diet: Consuming a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone health. Include dairy products, leafy green vegetables, and fortified foods in your diet.
  • Fall Prevention: Taking measures to prevent falls can significantly reduce the risk of fractures. This includes removing hazards in the home, using assistive devices, and practicing exercises that improve balance and coordination.


  • Bisphosphonates: These medications help slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures. They are commonly prescribed for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
  • Hormone Therapy: Estrogen therapy may be recommended for women who have experienced early menopause. It may also be recommended for women at risk of fractures. The use of hormone therapy should be carefully considered as it has certain risks and side effects.
  • Denosumab: This medication inhibits bone breakdown and is administered as an injection every six months.
  • Teriparatide and Abaloparatide: These medications are hormones that stimulate bone formation. They are typically used for severe osteoporosis.
  • Calcitonin: This hormone helps reduce bone breakdown and can be delivered as a nasal spray or injection.
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs): SERMs mimic the effects of estrogen in some tissues and can help prevent bone loss.

The choice of medication and treatment plan will depend on individual factors. These include age, overall health, and fracture risk. Dr. Howard will work closely with you to determine the most appropriate treatment approach.

Prevention of Osteoporosis

Prevention plays a crucial role in maintaining bone health and reducing the risk of osteoporosis. Here are some preventive measures that can help promote strong bones:

  • Balanced Diet – A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone health. Include calcium-rich foods, such as dairy products, leafy green vegetables, and fortified foods in your meals. Ensure adequate intake of vitamin D through sun exposure or supplementation.
  • Regular Exercise – Engaging in weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging, and strength training, helps stimulate bone growth and maintain bone density. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week.
  • Avoid Smoking and Excessive Alcohol Consumption – Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can negatively impact bone health. Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol intake can help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
  • Fall Prevention – Preventing falls is crucial in reducing the risk of fractures. This is especially true for individuals with osteoporosis. This includes removing hazards in the home. It also involves using assistive devices, wearing proper footwear, and practicing exercises to improve balance and coordination.
  • Regular Bone Density Testing – Regular bone density testing, such as DEXA scans, can help identify early signs of bone loss. It also allows for early intervention and treatment.

Incorporating these preventive measures into your lifestyle can significantly reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and maintain optimal bone health.

Contact Us for Osteoporosis Care

Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that can significantly impact your quality of life. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and fall prevention strategies, you can promote strong bones and reduce the risk of fractures.

If you suspect you may have osteoporosis or are at risk, contact Dr. Howard for a proper diagnosis and personalized treatment plan. Remember, taking proactive measures to maintain bone health is key to preventing osteoporosis and preserving your overall well-being. Schedule your appointment with us today!